Here he sees victimization coming in as the stigmatized individual falls victim for the numerous fraudulent operators who provide cures for each kind of stigma, but fail to deliver on their promises. The stigmatized individual may also go to extreme efforts to try to overcome their shortcomings, such as the lame person who learns to swim, ride, play tennis or fly, or the blind person who learns to ski. Goffman elements out that some of these efforts also end disastrously as, for example, a person inside a wheelchair trying to dance.
A person using a stigma may perhaps also use it like a crutch (Goffman 1963). He gives an illustration of people who have applied their physical stigma as an excuse not to try and do things or to get attention, and once these physical disabilities are cured, they have difficulty adjusting to ?normal' life mainly because their crutch has been taken away. Others find the experience has changed their outlook on life and individuals and given them new insights into how ?normal' people believe and act. Some stigmatized folks can't handle contacts with so-called ?normal' men and women as a result of the way they react to them, or as a result of their individual self-consciousness and fears, and so hide themselves away from everyone, and turn out to be a recluse.
While Goffman saw stigma mainly in physical terms, e.g. the lame, the blind, people with chronic ailments, Link and Phelan (2001) looked at how men and women respond to individuals with a stigma. They looked at how stigma has been defined by researchers and how the stigma thought has been used, critically analyzing these studies and developing a brand new conceptualization fo the term stigma. They explain the numerous different definitions of stigma by the truth how the stigma thought has been employed to quite a few various circumstances, and that it has been applied by researchers from many a variety of disciplines, every with their unique concept of what the word ?stigma' means.
he phenomenon has grown dramatically, and in social psychology, researchers have determined methods by which men and women construct cognitive categories, linking them to stereotypical beliefs. Simply because the stigma idea has been criticized as getting as well vague and individually focused, they have defined it as the co-occurrence of its components, which are labeling, stereotyping, separation, status loss, and discrimination. This differs from Goffman's 3 categories of stigma in looking at the components that make up stigma rather than the sorts of stigma present in society.
Link and Phelan (2001) would like to know what the social, economic and cultural forces are that draw focus to specific human differences and not others. They are also interested in preconceived stereotypes that are often automatic reactions and facilitate cognitive efficiency. Stigma, they say, is some thing that separates ?us' from ?them' and inside the extreme, the stigmatized individual is notion to be a smaller amount than human. Folks using a stigma suffer from a loss of status inside community, and face quite a few forms of discrimination, and on this both Goffman and Link and Phelan agree.
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