Management. In either case, long-range planning ends up macrocosm neglected. Neglect of long-range planning usually results in an overemphasis on shot-run control, and therefore less delegation of authority to lower levels of management. This much has adverse effects on employee motivation and satisfaction.

2.2.7 The Decision devising Process

Decisions should be thought of as means rather than ends. They ar the organizational mechanisms by which an sweat is made to achieve a desired state. They are, in effect, an organizational response to a fuss. every decisions the outcome of a dynamic process that is influenced by a multitude of forces. Although this process is diagrammed in Figure 17-1, it is not a fixed procedure. It is a sequential process rather than a series of steps. This enables us to examine from each one element in the normal progression that leads to a decision.

Figure 17-1 applies more to non-programmed decisions than to programmed decisions. Problems that go by infrequently, with a great deal of uncertainty and risk border the outcome required that the manager utilize the entire process. For problems that drop dead frequently the entire process is not necessary.

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If a constitution is established to handle such problems, managers do not demand to develop and evaluate alternatives each time a problem of this kind arises

Establishing Specific Goals and objectives and Measuring Results

Organizations need goals and objectives in each area where performance influences effectiveness. Adequately established goals and objectives will consecrate which results must be achieved and which measures indicate whether those results have been achieved. As sever of the goal and objective-setting process, top management must communicate their allowance for experimentation and failure on the part of subordinates. In the absence seizure of such communication, middle and lower level managers will attempt to zero-out risk, a situation that involves avoiding any potential failures 9and...If you want to learn a full essay, order it on our website: Orderessay

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